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 List of Illogical Fallacies

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Samara_C



Number of posts : 6
Registration date : 2008-09-18

PostSubject: List of Illogical Fallacies   Mon Dec 08, 2008 10:59 pm

List of Illogical Fallacies from the book "Being Logical"
1. Denying the Antecedent. A-B, -A, therefore -B. Basically this means if Louise is running, then she is moving. She is not running. There fore she is not moving.
2. Affirming the Consequent. A-B, B, therefore A. If Louise is running, than she is moving. Louise is moving, therefore she is running.
3. The Undistributed Middle Term. Several nazis were members of the Kaiser Club. Hans was a member of the Kaiser club. Therefore, Hans was a Nazi. This is also known as "Guilt by association" as well as a generalization (i.e. all men in the Kaiser club were nazis).
4. Equivocation. This one isn't used very much in debate, but is really confusing when it is. It's basically the use of a word with more than one meaning purposely for deception or confusion. For example. Fans make lots of noise. Mrs. Gray was using a fan. Therefore, she was making alot of noise.
5. Begging the Question. This is an EXTREMELY overused fallacy in debate. Begging the question, is basicall, accepting something that someone says without proof. The "argument" lacks information supporting the premise. But you accept it because you may think it's true or it sounds right.
6. False Assumption. A false assumption is exactly what it says it is. Assuming something to be true without proof and then it turns out to be false.
7. The Straw-Man fallacy. Another overly used fallacy. This is where you take your opponets argument and twist it into something easier for you to argue against. They are saying something, and you get up there and say "My opponet is saying 'this'" when in reality they had said something different.
8. Using and Abusing Tradition. Saying that since things have always been done one way, that way is right.
9. The Democratic fallacy. The assumption that since most people believe "X" to be true, "X" is true.
10. Ad Hominem. Against the person. This would look like going after the person in a debate round. ("Well, my opponet is obviously an idiot....")
11. The Uses and Abuses of Expertise. Assuming that because a learned man says it, then it is so.
12. Stopping Short at Analysis. It's easy to do this. You analyze something, be it a point, or a conention; but then you never put it back together.
13. Reductionism. This is the fallacy of focusing in on one small aspect of a whole and saying that that is all it is. Looking at the body and saying that all it is is a bunch of chemicals thrown together. The body is made up of chemicals, but that is not all it is.
14. The Red-Herring. The red-herring is a fallacy because it appeals directly and only to emotions. It is bringing up a volatile and emotionally charged subject to divert the judges attention.
15. The Inability to Disprove Does Not Prove. This is exactly what it says it is. Just because there is not enough information to disprove something, does not mean that you have proven it.
16. The False Dilemma. Saying that there are only two possibilities that we must choose between. (Your choice is A or B. That leaves no room for A and B, or C)
17. Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc. This fallacy is basically illustrated by the caveman example. The caveman looks out of his cave and hears the birds. Then he sees the sun rising. He then thinks that because the birds chirp, the sun rises.

I hope this helps yall.
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